Map of Nepal, China, India, Bagladesh
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Nepal is home to many famous sites: Mt. Everest, the tallest mountain in the world; Lumbini, the birthplace of Siddhartha Gautama, the first Buddha; and many more World Heritage sites. Nepal has traded with India and Tibet for centuries, and tried unsuccessfully to annex the latter in the Sino-Nepalese War.
In the early 19th century, Britain began claiming parts of India, bringing them to clash with Nepal. This rivalry eventually led to the Anglo-Nepalese war in 1815-1816. The British lost, earning the Nepalese warriors a reputation for strength and intimidation. After a Nepalese Prince usurped his mother's throne, the Royalty of Nepal changed their view on Britain and aided the country in both World Wars. Britain was so thankful for the aid, it returned the Terai Valley territory to Nepal, which had been lost in several skirmishes. While slavery was abolished in 1924, debt bondage, including instances where the debtor can sell their children into servitude, still persists.
In 1996, the Maoist Communist Party of Nepal began violently replacing royals in parliament. These actions led to the Nepalese Civil War, in which 12,000 people died. In 2001, 9 members of the royal family were killed by the crown prince Dipendra, who later took his life. While officials say it was over his family refusing to allow him his intended bride, many suspect other reasons, especially as he tried to end Maoist parliamentary power. The monarchy was completely abolished in 2007 and power was given to the people of Nepal democratically; the King abdicated and the palace was turned into a museum. Although Maoists were banned from the government in 2009, a former Maoist cabinet member was voted in as Prime Minister in 2011. Human trafficking and gendercide remain major problems across the country.
Nepal's terrain is divided into plains, hills, and mountains with the plains and hills fertilized by three major rivers that lead to the Ganges. Seven of the world's eight thousand meter peaks are in Nepal: Lhoste, Makulu, Cho'oya, Kanchengjunga, Dhalugri, Annapurna, and Manaslu. Nepal has five climate zones ranging from tropical to arctic, despite geographically being close to the equator and not the Arctic Circle. The country is prone to intense earthquakes due to being on the border between two tectonic plates.

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